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Farmers' Markets: Eating Seasonally

Many of the small growers at Farmer's Markets are organic growers. Even for those local farmers who do use some chemicals, however, the amount which they use is far less than large commercial farms. © istockphoto.com Many of the small growers at Farmer's Markets are organic growers. Even for those local farmers who do use some chemicals, however, the amount which they use is far less than large commercial farms. © istockphoto.com
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By Heather Bauer, R.D., nu-train

Eating Seasonally

No longer do you have to drive to rural areas for the fresh vegetables, fruits, flowers, and seasonal culinary creations of the farms. In the last few years, Farmer's Markets have been popping up and becoming increasingly popular in both urban and suburban neighborhoods. Towns and cities alike have happily sectioned off streets monthly, or even weekly, for nearby farms to provide residents access to locally grown food. While many look at jaunts to the Farmer's Market as occasional quaint outings, however, there are major benefits to regularly frequenting the local markets and to eating seasonally.

Health
Whether or not we realize it, the foods that are grown locally are essentially preparing us for the days ahead. Spring vegetables, like lettuce, kale, asparagus, and spinach, help to clean us out after a long winter. The summer harvest of grains and fruit helps to give us energy for the long days. The produce of autumn, including squash, apples, carrots, and beets, provide warmth and sweetness to help nourish us prior to the long winter. And finally, the winter foods, which generally are stored, like dried fruits, nuts, and other, heavy, dense foods, help to provide resilience.

RESEARCH ROUNDUP
Flavonoids
and
Cognitive Decline

Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants that are found in fruits, vegetables, tea, and red wine. The benefits of flavonoids have been highly touted, especially as it relates to cancer prevention.

In a study published this year by the American Journal of Epidemiology, researchers found that flavonoids may also help with cognitive function. Over 1600 subjects, age 65 and over, were followed for 10 years. At baseline, all participants were evaluated and found to be free from dementia. In addition, information on dietary flavonoid intake was collected at baseline.

Over the 10 year period, participants were cognitively evaluated four times. The researchers found that those participants who consumed the most flavonoids from food did significantly better on the mental examinations 10 years later than those who consumed the least amount of flavonoids.

Just one more reason to visit your Farmer’s Market and load up on fresh produce.



Intact Nutrients
As soon as a piece of fruit (or any produce) is plucked from the tree, the nutritional breakdown begins. Certain vitamins, particularly vitamin C, are very unstable and though they may be present fresh off the vine, are largely depleted after a few days. Supermarket produce may be shipped from a thousand (or more) miles away. As a result, the produce sits around for many days constantly losing some of the key nutrients.

Since local farms must adjust to the seasonal weather, the fields are also turned over more frequently. Thus, a patch of land that held cucumbers in the summer may hold root vegetables in the fall and winter. This turnover encourages a more nutrient-rich soil, which translates into a more nutrient-dense product (not to mention a tastier product).

Freshness
Locally grown produce is typically picked the day before arriving at the Farmer's Market. As a result, the produce is picked ripe or at its peak. Moreover, after a day at the Farmer's Market, leftover produce is generally not saved to be sold the next day. Instead it is used for jams and baked goods. On the other hand, supermarket produce is harvested well before ripeness so that it can withstand bulk handling and long range shipping. That means that when supermarket produce first hits the shelf, it is at least a week old. In fact, the automatic spraying of the produce section every few minutes is mainly done to perk up the week-old vegetables. It doesn't help that nutrients of the produce leach out at each spraying.

Fewer Preservatives

Many of the small growers at Farmer's Markets are organic growers, which mean they do not use any synthetic compounds on their fields. Even for those local farmers who do use some chemicals, however, the amount which they use is far less than large commercial farms. Moreover, because local farms pick their produce at its peak, they do not use any chemical ripening agents. And because they get their produce to market almost immediately, they do not need to coat their produce in wax or add any other preservative.

Variety
Nowadays, when you walk into a supermarket, you may never know the season. Due to global trade, the supermarkets will always have melon, tomatoes, and tropical fruit. Without any new options, we can easily encounter food fatigue. And when we tire of fruits and vegetables, it is too easy to fall into the rut of treating ourselves with high-fat and high-sugar foods to perk up our food repertoires. However, when we eat seasonally, we can look forward to the juicy summer watermelon or the savory autumn artichokes. Plus, by purchasing seasonal foods, and not splurging on that $10 clamshell of blueberries in the dead of winter, you can also save money.

Incorporating seasonal eating into your lifestyle demands a bit more time, thought, and commitment. As a result, however, you will be rewarded with more robust flavors and loads more nutrients - your body, your palette, and the Earth will definitely thank you!

A guide to seasonal eating

The following chart is based on availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in New York City.  (Source: Greenmarket NYC)

VEGETABLES FRUIT
Winter
•Dried beans
• Beets
• Carrots
• Collard greens
• Leeks
• Onions
• Parsnips
• Potatoes
• Winter squash
• Turnips
•Apples
•Pears
Spring
• Asparagus
• Dried beans
• Cabbage
• Carrots
• Beet greens
• Mesclun
• Onions
• Parsnips
• Potatoes
• Radishes
• Rhubarb
• Scallions
• Spinach
• Zucchini
• Turnip greens
• Apples
• Pears
Summer
• Asparagus
• Snap beans
• Dried beans
• Beets
• Beet greens
• Broccoli
• Cabbage
• Carrots
• Cauliflower
• Celery
• Collard greens
• Corn
• Cucumbers
• Eggplant
• Herbs
• Lettuce
• Leeks
• Mesclun
• Onions
• Peas
• Peppers
• Potatoes
• Radishes
• Rhubarb
• Scallions
• Spinach
• Swiss chard
• Tomatoes
• Turnips
• Turnip greens
• Winter squash
• Zucchini
• Apples
• Blackberries
• Blueberries
• Cantaloupe
• Cherries
• Currants
• Peaches
• Plums
• Strawberries
• Raspberries
Fall
• Snap beans
• Dried beans
• Beets
• Beet greens
• Broccoli
• Brussels sprouts
• Cabbage
• Carrots
• Cauliflower
• Celery
• Collard greens
• Corn
• Eggplant
• Fennel
• Herbs
• Kale
• Lettuce
• Leeks
• Lima beans
• Mesclun
• Onions
• Parsnip
• Potatoes
• Pumpkin
• Scallions
• Spinach
• Swiss chard
• Tomatoes
• Turnips
• Winter squash
• Zucchini
• Apples
• Blueberries
• Cantaloupe
• Grapes
• Peaches
• Pears
• Plums
• Raspberries
• Watermelon

Provided by Heather Bauer, a Registered Dietician (RD) specializing in the interrelation between eating habits, metabolism, and lifestyle. Visit nu-train for more tips and tricks and sign up for her monthly newsletter.
*DISCLAIMER*: The information contained in or provided through this site section is intended for general consumer understanding and education only and is not intended to be and is not a substitute for professional advice. Use of this site section and any information contained on or provided through this site section is at your own risk and any information contained on or provided through this site section is provided on an "as is" basis without any representations or warranties.